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{{fbdoc item="title" value="C Standard Library Functions"}}----
This is a list of function prototypes in the standard C library in alphabetical order and a list of prototypes grouped by functionality.

**{{anchor name="ALPHA|Alphabetical List"}}**
**{{anchor name="BUFFER|Buffer Manipulation"}}**
**{{anchor name="CTYPE|Character Classification and Conversion"}}**
**{{anchor name="DATA|Data Conversion"}}**
**{{anchor name="DIRS|Directory Manipulation"}}**
**{{anchor name="FILES|File Manipulation"}}**
**{{anchor name="STREAM|Stream I/O"}}**
**{{anchor name="LOLEVIO|Low level I/O"}}**
**{{anchor name="MATH|Mathematics"}}**
**{{anchor name="MEMORY|Memory Allocation"}}**
**{{anchor name="PROCESS|Process Control"}}**
**{{anchor name="SORTING|Searching and Sorting"}}**
**{{anchor name="STRING|String Manipulation"}}**
**{{anchor name="TIME|Time"}}**

{{fbdoc item="desc"}}
The Comments column contains a very brief description of the use of the function. The list is not complete, however it provides information on the major functions in the C Runtime Library. It should, at the very least, indicate what functions are available in the standard C library allow you to do more investigation on your own. Some of the C library functions documented elsewhere may not be available in ""FreeBASIC"". Check the appropriate include file for more information.

**Note:** The following prototypes are not the official ""FreeBASIC"" prototypes (see the include files), however, they will give you enough information to properly use the functions.

The Include File column contains the name of the file which you must include, using the ##[[KeyPgInclude|#include]]## directive at the beginning of your program. If you don't include the appropriate include file, the program either will not compile, or it will compile apparently correctly but give incorrect results when run. All of the C Runtime headers are located in the ##crt## directory; for example, if the specified header is ##math.bi##, use ###include "crt/math.bi"## or ###include "crt\math.bi"##, our just ###include "crt.bi"## including all the others.

The Prototype column contains the following information:
- The name of the function;
- The parameters required for the function in parenthesis, together with the data-type of the parameters;
- The data-type of the value returned by the function.

For example **##atoi(a as zstring ptr) as integer##** means that the function **##atoi##** returns a value of type **integer** and requires a character **zstring ptr** as its argument.

**Note:** In order to make calling the C runtime functions very easy, any string type argument may be directly passed to a procedure referring to a parameter declared as 'zstring ptr'. The compiler performs itself an automatic conversion (without warning message) between any string type argument and the 'zstring ptr' type parameter.

{{anchor name="ALPHA"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Alphabetical List"}}

{{table columns="4" cellpadding="1" cells="Name;Prototype (with parameters);Include File;Comments;abs_;abs_(n as integer) as integer;stdlib.bi;Returns the absolute value (i.e. positive value);acos_;acos_(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the inverse cosine (angle in radians);asin_;asin_(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the inverse sine (angle in radians);atan_;atan_(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the inverse tan (angle in radians);atan2_;atan2_(y as double, x as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the inverse tan (pass the opposite as y and the adjacent as x);atoi;atoi(s as zstring ptr) as integer;stdlib.bi;Converts a character zstring of digits to a number of type integer.;atof;atof(s as zstring ptr) as double;stdlib.bi;Converts a character zstring of digits to a number of type double.;calloc;calloc(NumElts as integer, EltSiz as integer) as any ptr;stdlib.bi;Allocates memory. Returns a pointer to a buffer for an array having NumElts elements, each of size EltSiz bytes.;ceil;ceil(d as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the nearest whole number above the value passed.;clearerr;clearerr(s as FILE ptr);stdio.bi;Clears the error indicators on a file stream (read or write).;cos_;cos_(ar as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the cosine of an angle measured in radians.;cosh;cosh(x as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the hyperbolic cosine of an angle measured in radians.;div;div(num as integer, denom as integer) as div_t;stdlib.bi;Returns the quotient and remainder of a division as a structure of type div_t.;ecvt;ecvt(x as double) as zstring ptr;math.bi;Converts a number to a zstring.;exit_;exit_(status as integer);stdlib.bi;Exits a program. It will flush file buffers and closes all opened files, and run any functions called by atexit().;exp_;exp_(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the value of e raised to the power of the argument (Inverse to natural logarithm).;fabs;fabs(d as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the absolute value (i.e. positive value) of type double.;fclose;fclose(s as FILE ptr) as FILE ptr;stdio.bi;Closes a file. Returns 0 if successful otherwise EOF.;feof;feof(s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Returns value of end-of-file indicator . (0 if not eof). Indicator will clear itself but can be reset by clearerr().;ferror;ferror(s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Returns error indicator for a stream (0 if no error). Error indicator is reset by clearerr() or rewind().;fflush;fflush(s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Flushes (i.e. deletes) a stream (use stdin to flush the stream from the keyboard). Returns 0 if successful.;fgetc;fgetc(s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Single character input (in ASCII) from passed stream (stdin for keyboard).;fgetpos;fgetpos(s as FILE ptr, c as fpos_t ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Saves the position of the file pointer on stream s at the location pointed to by c.;fgets;fgets(b as zstring ptr, n as integer, s as FILE ptr) as zstring ptr;stdio.bi;From the stream s reads up to n-1 characters to buffer b.;floor;floor(d as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the nearest whole number below the value passed.;fmod;fmod(x as double, y as double) as double;math.bi;Calculates the remainder of x divided by y.;fopen;fopen(file as zstring ptr, mode as zstring ptr) as FILE ptr;stdio.bi;Opens a file. Pass the DOS name of the file and a code to indicate whether for reading, writing, or appending. Codes are r for read, w for write, + for read and write, a for append and b to indicate binary.;fprintf;fprintf(s as FILE ptr, fmt as zstring ptr, ...) as integer;stdio.bi;Prints on stream s as many items as there are single % signs in fmt that have matching arguments in the list.;fputc;fputc(c as integer, s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Outputs the single character c to the stream s.;fputs;fputs(b as zstring ptr, s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Sends the character stream in b to stream s, returns 0 if the operation fails.;fread;fread(buf as any ptr, b as size_t, c as size_t, s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Reads the number c items of data of size b bytes from file s to the buffer buf. Returns the number of data items actually read.;free;free(p as any ptr);stdlib.bi;Frees the memory allocation for a pointer p to enable this memory to be used.;freopen;freopen(file as zstring ptr, mode as zstring ptr, s as FILE ptr) as FILE ptr;stdio.bi;Opens a file for redirecting a stream. e.g. freopen("myfile", "w", stdout) will redirect the standard output to the opened "myfile".;frexp;frexp(x as double, p as integer ptr) as double;math.bi;Calculates a value m so that x equals m times 2 to some power. p is a pointer to m.;fscanf;fscanf(s as FILE ptr, fmt as zstring ptr, ...) as integer;stdio.bi;Reads from stream s as many items as there are % signs in fmt with corresponding listed pointers.;fseek;fseek(s as FILE ptr, offset as integer, origin as integer) as integer;stdio.bi;Locates a file pointer. With origin 0, 1 or 2 for the beginning, offset bytes into and at the end of the stream.;fsetpos;fsetpos(s as FILE ptr, p as fpos_t ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Sets the file pointer for the stream s to the value pointed to by p.;ftell;ftell(s as FILE ptr) as long;stdio.bi;Locates the position of the file pointer for the stream s.;fwrite;fwrite(buf as any ptr, b as integer, c as integer, s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Writes the number c items of data of size b bytes from the buffer buf to the file s. Returns the number of data items actually written.;getc;getc(s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Macro for single character input (in ASCII) from passed stream. (stdin for keyboard);getchar;getchar() as integer;stdio.bi;Single character input from the standard input;gets;gets(b as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;stdio.bi;Reads a stream of characters from the standard input until it meets \n or EOF.;hypot;hypot(x as double, y as double) as double;math.bi;Calculates the hypotenuse from the sides x and y.;isalnum;isalnum(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is alphabetic or a digit.;isalpha;isalpha(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is alphabetic.;iscntrl;iscntrl(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is a control character.;isdigit;isdigit(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is a digit.;isgraph;isgraph(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is alphabetic.;islower;islower(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non-zero value if character c is a lower case character.;isprint;isprint(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is printable.;ispunct;ispunct(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c is a punctuation character.;isspace;isspace(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non zero value if character c denotes a space.;isupper;isupper(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non-zero value if character c is an upper case character.;isxdigit;isxdigit(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Returns a non-zero value if character c is a hex digit (0 to F or f).;ldexp;ldexp(x as double, n as integer) as double;math.bi;Returns the product of x and 2 to the power n.;ldiv;ldiv(num as long, denom as long) as ldiv_t;stdlib.bi;Returns the quotient and remainder of a division as a structure of type ldiv_t.;log_;log_(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the natural logarithm of the argument.;log10;log10(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the logarithm to the base 10 of the argument.;malloc;malloc(bytes as integer) as any ptr;stdlib.bi;Allocates memory. Returns a pointer to a buffer comprising storage for the specified size.;modf;modf(d as double, p as double ptr) as double;math.bi;Returns the fractional part of a floating point number d. p points to the integral part expressed as a float.;perror;perror(mess as zstring ptr);stdio.bi;Prints on the stream stderr a message passed as the argument.;pow;pow(x as double, y as double) as double;math.bi;Returns x to the power y.;pow10;pow10(x as double) as double;math.bi;Returns 10 to the power x (inverse function to log10()).;printf;printf(fmt as zstring ptr, ...) as integer;stdio.bi;Prints on standard output as many items as there are single % signs in fmt with matching arguments in the list.;putc;putc(c as integer, s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Macro to output the single character c to the stream s.;putchar;putchar(c as integer) as integer;stdio.bi;Macro to output the single character c to the standard output.;puts;puts(b as zstring ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Sends the character stream in b to the standard output, returns 0 if operation fails.;rand;rand() as integer;stdlib.bi;Returns a pseudo random number. A seed is required. The seed is set with srand.;realloc;realloc(p as any ptr, newsize as size_t) as any ptr;stdlib.bi;Allocates memory. Returns a pointer to a buffer for a change in size of object pointed to by p.;rewind;rewind(s as FILE ptr);stdio.bi;Clears the error indicators on a file stream (read or write). Necessary before reading an amended file.;scanf;scanf(fmt as zstring ptr, ...) as integer;stdio.bi;Reads from standard input as many items as there are % signs in fmt with corresponding listed pointers.;sin_;sin_(ar as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the sine of an angle measured in radians.;sinh;sinh(x as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the hyperbolic sine of an angle measured in radians.;sprintf;sprintf(p as zstring ptr, fmt as zstring ptr, ...) as integer;stdio.bi;Prints on zstring p as many items as there are single % signs in fmt that have matching arguments in the list.;sqrt;sqrt(a as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the square root of the value passed. Domain error if value is negative.;srand;srand(seed as uinteger);stdlib.bi;Sets the seed for a random number. A possible seed is the current time.;sscanf;sscanf(b as zstring ptr, fmt as zstring ptr, ...) as integer;stdio.bi;Reads from buffer b as many items as there are % signs in fmt with corresponding listed pointers.;strcat;strcat(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Concatenates (appends) zstring s2 to s1.;strchr;strchr(s as zstring ptr, c as integer) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Returns a pointer to the first occurrence of c in s or NULL if it fails to find one.;strcmp;strcmp(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as integer;string.bi;Compares zstring s2 to s1. Returns 0 or signed difference in ASCII values of first non matching character.;strcpy;strcpy(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Copies s2 into s1.;strcspn;strcspn(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as integer;string.bi;Returns the number of characters in s1 encountered before meeting any of the characters in s2.;strerror;strerror(n as integer) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Returns a pointer to a system error message corresponding to the passed error number.;strlen;strlen(s as zstring ptr) as integer;string.bi;Returns the number of bytes in the null terminated zstring pointed to by s (does not count null).;strncat;strncat(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr, n as integer) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Concatenates (appends) n bytes from zstring s2 to s1.;strncmp;strncmp(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as any ptr, n as integer) as integer;string.bi;Compares n bytes of zstring s2 to the same of s1. Returns 0 or signed difference in ASCII values of first non matching character.;strncpy;strncpy(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr, n as integer) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Copies n bytes from s2 into s1.;strpbrk;strpbrk(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Returns a pointer to the first character encountered in s1 that is also in s2.;strrchr;strrchr(s as zstring ptr, c as integer) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Returns a pointer to the last occurrence of c in s or NULL if it fails to find one.;strspn;strspn(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as integer;string.bi;Returns the number of characters in s1 encountered before meeting a character which is not in s2.;strstr;strstr(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Finds the location of the zstring s2 in s1 and returns a pointer to its leading character.;strtod;strtod(s as zstring ptr, p as zstring ptr) as double;stdlib.bi;Converts a zstring to double, provided the zstring is written in the form of a number.;strtok;strtok(s1 as zstring ptr, s2 as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;string.bi;Returns pointers to successive tokens utilizing the zstring s1. Tokens regarded as separators are listed in s2.;system;system(command as zstring ptr) as integer;stdlib.bi;Executes, from within a program, a command addressed to the operating system written as a zstring (e.g. DIR on Windows and DOS and LS on Linux).;tan_;tan_(ar as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the tangent of an angle measured in radians.;tanh;tanh(x as double) as double;math.bi;Returns the hyperbolic tangent of an angle measured in radians.;tolower;tolower(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Converts a character from upper case to lower case (uses ASCII code).;toupper;toupper(c as integer) as integer;ctype.bi;Converts a character from lower case to upper case (uses ASCII code).;ungetc;ungetc(c as integer, s as FILE ptr) as integer;stdio.bi;Pushes a character c back into the stream s, returns EOF if unsuccessful. Do not push more than one character."}}

{{anchor name="BUFFER"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Buffer Manipulation"}}

##**#include "crt/string.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;memchr(s as any ptr, c as integer, n as size_t) as any ptr;Search for a character in a buffer.;memcmp(s1 as any ptr, s2 as any ptr, n as size_t) as integer;Compare two buffers.;memcpy(dest as any ptr, src as any ptr, n as size_t) as any ptr;Copy one buffer into another .;memmove(dest as any ptr, src as any ptr, n as size_t) as any ptr;Move a number of bytes from one buffer lo another.;memset(s as any ptr, c as integer, n as size_t) as any ptr;Set all bytes of a buffer to a given character."}}

{{anchor name="CTYPE"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Character Classification and Conversion"}}

##**#include "crt/ctype.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;isalnum(c as integer) as integer;True if c is alphanumeric.;isalpha(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a letter.;isascii(c as integer) as integer;True if c is ASCII .;iscntrl(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a control character.;isdigit(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a decimal digit.;isgraph(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a graphical character.;islower(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a lowercase letter.;isprint(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a printable character.;ispunct(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a punctuation character.;isspace(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a space character.;isupper(c as integer) as integer;True if c is an uppercase letter.;isxdigit(c as integer) as integer;True if c is a hexadecimal digit.;toascii(c as integer) as integer;Convert c to ASCII .;tolower(c as integer) as integer;Convert c to lowercase.;toupper(c as integer) as integer;Convert c to uppercase."}}

{{anchor name="DATA"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Data Conversion"}}

##**#include "crt/stdlib.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;atof(string1 as zstring ptr) as double;Convert zstring to floating point value.;atoi(string1 as zstring ptr) as integer;Convert zstring to an integer value.;atol(string1 as zstring ptr) as integer;Convert zstring to a long integer value.;itoa(value as integer, zstring as zstring ptr, radix as integer) as zstring ptr;Convert an integer value to a zstring using given radix.;ltoa(value as long, zstring as zstring ptr, radix as integer) as zstring ptr;Convert long integer to zstring in a given radix.;strtod(string1 as zstring ptr, endptr as zstring ptr) as double;Convert zstring to a floating point value.;strtol(string1 as zstring ptr, endptr as zstring ptr, radix as integer) as long;Convert zstring to a long integer using a given radix.;strtoul(string1 as zstring ptr, endptr as zstring ptr, radix as integer) as ulong;Convert zstring to unsigned long."}}

{{anchor name="DIRS"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Directory Manipulation"}}

##**#include "crt/io.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;_chdir(path as zstring ptr) as integer;Change current directory to given path.;_getcwd(path as zstring ptr, numchars as integer) as zstring ptr;Returns name of current working directory.;_mkdir(path as zstring ptr) as integer;Create a directory using given path name.;_rmdir(path as zstring ptr) as integer;Delete a specified directory."}}

{{anchor name="FILES"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="File Manipulation"}}

##**#include "crt/sys/stat.bi"**##
##**#include "crt/io.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;chmod(path as zstring ptr, pmode as integer) as integer;Change permission settings of a file.;fstat(handle as integer, buffer as type stat ptr) as integer;Get file status information.;remove(path as zstring ptr) as integer;Delete a named file.;rename_(oldname as zstring ptr, newname as zstring ptr) as integer;rename a file.;stat(path as zstring ptr, buffer as type stat ptr) as integer;Get file status information of named file.;umask(pmode as uinteger) as uinteger;Set file permission mask."}}

{{anchor name="STREAM"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Stream I/O"}}

##**#include "crt/stdio.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;clearerr(file_pointer as FILE ptr);Clear error indicator of stream,;fclose(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Close a file,;feof(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Check if end of file occurred on a stream.;ferror(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Check if any error occurred during file I/0.;fflush(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Write out (flush) buffer to file.;fgetc(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Get a character from a stream.;fgetpos(file_pointer as FILE ptr, fpos_t current_pos) as integer;Get the current position in a stream.;fgets(string1 as zstring ptr, maxchar as integer, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as zstring ptr;Read a zstring from a file.;fopen(filename as zstring ptr, access_mode as zstring ptr) as FILE ptr;Open a file for buffered I/0.;fprintf(file_pointer as FILE ptr, format_string as zstring ptr, args) as integer;Write formatted output to a file,;fputc(c as integer, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Write a character to a stream.;fputchar(c as integer) as integer;Write a character to stdout.;fputs(string1 as zstring ptr, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Write a zstring to a stream.;fread(buffer as zstring ptr, size as size_t count as size_t, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as size_t;Read unformatted data from a stream into a buffer.;freopen(filename as zstring ptr, access as zstring ptr mode, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as FILE ptr;Reassign a file pointer to a different file.;fscanf(file_pointer as FILE ptr, format as zstring ptr zstring, args) as integer;Read formatted input from a stream.;fseek(file_pointer as FILE ptr, offset as long, origin as integer) as integer;Set current position in file to a new location.;fsetpos(file_pointer as FILE ptr, current_pos as fpos_t) as integer;Set current position in file to a new location.;ftell(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as long;Get current location in file.;fwrite(buffer as zstring ptr, size as size_t, count as size_t file_pointer as FILE ptr) as size_t;Write unformatted data from a buffer to a stream.;getc(file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Read a character from a stream.;getchar() as integer;Read a character from stdin.;gets(buffer as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;Read a line from stdin into a buffer.;printf(format as zstring ptr _string, args) as integer;Write formatted output to stdout.;putc(c as integer, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Write a character to a stream.;putchar(c as integer) as integer;Write a character to stdout.;puts(string1 as zstring ptr) as integer;Write a zstring to stdout.;rewind(file_pointer as FILE ptr);Rewind a file.;scanf(format_string as zstring ptr, args) as integer;Read formatted input from stdin.;setbuf(file_pointer as FILE ptr, buffer as zstring ptr);Set up a new buffer for the stream.;setvbuf(file_pointer as FILE ptr, buffer as zstring ptr, buf_type as integer, buf as size_t size) as integer;Set up new buffer and control the level of buffering on a stream.;sprintf(string1 as zstring ptr, format_string as zstring ptr, args) as integer;Write formatted output to a zstring.;sscanf(buffer as zstring ptr, format_string as zstring ptr, args) as integer;Read formatted input from a zstring.;tmpfile() as FILE ptr;Open a temporary file.;tmpnam(file_name as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;Get temporary file name.;ungetc(c as integer, file_pointer as FILE ptr) as integer;Push back character into stream' s buffer"}}

{{anchor name="LOLEVIO"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Low level I/O"}}

##**#include "crt/io.bi"**##

So far Win32 only, connects to MSVCRT.DLL (headers missing for other platforms)

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;_close(handle as integer) as integer;Close a file opened for unbuffered I/O.;_creat(filename as zstring ptr, pmode as integer) as integer;Create a new file with specified permission setting.;_eof(handle as integer) as integer;Check for end of file.;_lseek(handle as integer, offset as long, origin as integer) as long;Go to a specific position in a file.;_open(filename as zstring ptr, oflag as integer, pmode as uinteger) as integer;Open a file for low-level I/O.;_read(handle as integer, buffer as zstring ptr, length as uinteger) as integer;Read binary data from a file into a buffer.;_write(handle as integer, buffer as zstring ptr, count as uinteger) as integer;Write binary data from a buffer to a file."}}

{{anchor name="MATH"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Mathematics"}}

##**#include "crt/math.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;abs_(n as integer) as integer;Get absolute value of an integer.;acos_(x as double) as double;Compute arc cosine of x.;asin_(x as double) as double;Compute arc sine of x.;atan_(x as double) as double;Compute arc tangent of x.;atan2_(y as double, x as double) as double;Compute arc tangent of y/x.;ceil(x as double) as double;Get smallest integral value that exceeds x.;cos_(x as double) as double;Compute cosine of angle in radians.;cosh(x as double) as double;Compute the hyperbolic cosine of x.;div(number as integer, denom as integer) as div_t;Divide one integer by another.;exp_(x as double) as double;Compute exponential of x.;fabs(x as double) as double;Compute absolute value of x.;floor(x as double) as double;Get largest integral value less than x.;fmod(x as double, y as double) as double;Divide x by y with integral quotient and return remainder.;frexp(x as double, expptr as integer ptr) as double;Breaks down x into mantissa and exponent of no.;labs(n as long) as long;Find absolute value of long integer n.;ldexp(x as double, exp as integer) as double;Reconstructs x out of mantissa and exponent of two.;ldiv(number as long, denom as long) as ldiv_t;Divide one long integer by another.;log_(x as double) as double;Compute log(x).;log10(x as double) as double;Compute log to the base 10 of x.;modf(x as double, intptr as double ptr) as double;Breaks x into fractional and integer parts.;pow(x as double, y as double) as double;Compute x raised to the power y.;rand() as integer;Get a random integer between 0 and 32767.;random(max_num as integer) as integer;Get a random integer between 0 and max_num.;randomize();Set a random seed for the random number generator.;sin_(x as double) as double;Compute sine of angle in radians.;sinh(x as double) as double;Compute the hyperbolic sine of x.;sqrt(x as double) as double;Compute the square root of x.;srand(seed as uinteger);Set a new seed for the random number generator (rand).;tan_(x as double) as double;Compute tangent of angle in radians.;tanh(x as double) as double;Compute the hyperbolic tangent of x."}}

{{anchor name="MEMORY"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Memory Allocation"}}

##**#include "crt/stdlib.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;calloc(num as size_t elems, elem_size as size_t) as any ptr;Allocate an array and initialise all elements to zero .;free(mem_address as any ptr);Free a block of memory.;malloc(num as size_t bytes) as any ptr;Allocate a block of memory.;realloc(mem_address as any ptr, newsize as size_t) as any ptr;Reallocate (adjust size) a block of memory."}}

{{anchor name="PROCESS"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Process Control"}}

##**#include "crt/stdlib.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;abort();Abort a process.;execl(path as zstring ptr, arg0 as zstring ptr, arg1 as zstring ptr,..., NULL) as integer;Launch a child process (pass command line).;execlp(path as zstring ptr, arg0 as zstring ptr, arg1 as zstring ptr,..., NULL) as integer;Launch child (use PATH, pass command line).;execv(path as zstring ptr, argv as zstring ptr) as integer;Launch child (pass argument vector).;execvp(path as zstring ptr, argv as zstring ptr) as integer;Launch child (use PATH, pass argument vector).;exit_(status as integer);Terminate process after flushing all buffers.;getenv(varname as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;Get definition of environment variable,;perror(string1 as zstring ptr);Print error message corresponding to last system error.;putenv(envstring as zstring ptr) as integer;Insert new definition into environment table.;raise(signum as integer) as integer;Generate a C signal (exception).;system_(string1 as zstring ptr) as integer; Execute a resident operating system command."}}

{{anchor name="SORTING"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Searching and Sorting"}}

##**#include "crt/stdlib.bi"**##
**Note:** The //compare// callback function required by ##bsearch## and ##qsort## must be declared as ##[[KeyPgCdecl|cdecl]]##. It must return a value <0 if its first argument should be located before the second one in the sorted array, >0 if the first argument should be located after the second one, and zero if their relative positions are indifferent (equal values).

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;bsearch(key as any ptr, base as any ptr, num as size_t, width as size_t, compare as function(elem1 as any ptr, elem2 as any ptr) as integer) as any ptr;Perform binary search.;qsort(base as any ptr, num as size_t, width as size_t, compare as function(elem1 as any ptr, elem2 as any ptr) as integer);Use the quicksort algorithm to sort an array."}}

{{anchor name="STRING"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="String Manipulation"}}

##**#include "crt/string.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;stpcpy(dest as zstring ptr, src as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;Copy one zstring into another.;strcmp(string1 as zstring ptr, string2 as zstring ptr) as integer;Compare string1 and string2 to determine alphabetic order.;strcpy(string1 as zstring ptr, string2 as zstring ptr) as zstring ptr;Copy string2 to string1.;strerror(errnum as integer) as zstring ptr;Get error message corresponding to specified error number.;strlen(string1 as zstring ptr) as integer;Determine the length of a zstring.;strncat(string1 as zstring ptr, string2 as zstring ptr, n as size_t) as zstring ptr;Append n characters from string2 to string1.;strncmp(string1 as zstring ptr, string2 as zstring ptr, n as size_t) as integer;Compare first n characters of two strings.;strncpy(string1 as zstring ptr, string2 as zstring ptr, n as size_t) as zstring ptr;Copy first n characters of string2 to string1.;strnset(string1 as zstring ptr, c as integer, size _t n) as zstring ptr;Set first n characters of zstring to c.;strrchr(string1 as zstring ptr, c as integer) as zstring ptr;Find last occurrence of character c in zstring."}}

{{anchor name="TIME"}}{{fbdoc item="section" value="Time"}}

##**#include "crt/time.bi"**##

{{table columns="2" cellpadding="1" cells="Prototype (with parameters);Comments;asctime(time as type tm ptr) as zstring ptr;Convert time from type tm to zstring.;clock() as clock_t;Get elapsed processor time in clock ticks.;ctime(time as time_t ptr) as zstring ptr;Convert binary time to zstring.;difftime(time_t time2, time_t time1) as double;Compute the difference between two times in seconds.;gmtime(time as time_t ptr) as type tm ptr;Get Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) in a tm structure.;localtime(time as time_t ptr) as type tm ptr;Get the local time in a tm structure.;time_(timeptr as time_t ptr) as time_t;Get current time as seconds elapsed since 0 hours GMT 1/1/70."}}

{{fbdoc item="see"}}
- ##[[KeyPgInclude|#include]]##

{{fbdoc item="back" value="CatPgProgrammer|Programmer's Guide"}}{{fbdoc item="back" value="DocToc|Table of Contents"}}
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