Operator New Overload


Member operator to overload dynamic memory allocation process part provided by Operator New Expression when applying to a UDT (User Defined Type).

Syntax:
Parameters:
size
Number of bytes to allocate.

Return Value:
A pointer of type any ptr to the start of the newly allocated memory.

Description:
The member operator New Overload overloads the dynamic memory allocation process part provided by the New Expression operator when applying to a UDT (User Defined Type). So the user can define its own dynamic memory allocation process part.
But after that, the UDT instance construction process part provided by the New Expression operator is not modified.

New[] Overload operator is the array-version of the New Overload operator and overloads the dynamic memory allocation process provided by the New[] Expression operator when applying to a UDT (User Defined Type).

Memory allocated with New Overload operator must be freed by also defining a Delete Overload operator. Memory allocated with New[] Overload operator must be freed by also defining a Delete[] Overload operator, the array-version of Delete Overload operator. You cannot mix and match the different versions of the operators.

Member operators New Overload, and New[] Overload are always static, even if not explicitly declared (static keyword is unnecessary but allowed). Thus, they do not have an implicit This instance argument passed to them (because instance not yet been constructed).

Examples:
Dynamic allocation displayer for UDT, by using the member operators "New([]) Overload" and "Delete([]) Overload" (very simple example, only for syntax usage):
  • displaying of memory allocations: addresses, sizes,
  • displaying of memory deallocations: addresses.
Type UDTdisplayer
  '' user UDT fields:
    Dim As Byte b(1 To 1024*1024)
  '' display fields:
    Public:
      Declare Operator New (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
      Declare Operator Delete (ByVal buf As Any Ptr)
      Declare Operator New[] (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
      Declare Operator Delete[] (ByVal buf As Any Ptr)
    Private:
      Declare Static Function allocation (ByRef N As String, ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
      Declare Static Sub deallocation (ByRef D As String, ByVal p As Any Ptr)
End Type

Operator UDTdisplayer.New (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
  Return UDTdisplayer.allocation("New", size)
End Operator

Operator UDTdisplayer.Delete (ByVal buf As Any Ptr)
  UDTdisplayer.deallocation("Delete", buf)
End Operator

Operator UDTdisplayer.New[] (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
  Return UDTdisplayer.allocation("New[]", size)
End Operator

Operator UDTdisplayer.Delete[] (ByVal buf As Any Ptr)
  UDTdisplayer.deallocation("Delete[]", buf)
End Operator

Function UDTdisplayer.allocation (ByRef N As String, ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
  Dim As Any Ptr p = Allocate(size)
  Print "memory allocation for " & size & " bytes from '" & N & "' at address: " & p
  Return p
End Function

Sub UDTdisplayer.deallocation (ByRef D As String, ByVal p As Any Ptr)
  Print "memory deallocation from '" & D & "' at address " & p
  Deallocate p
End Sub


Randomize
Dim As UDTdisplayer Ptr pu1 = New UDTdisplayer
Dim As UDTdisplayer Ptr pu2 = New UDTdisplayer[3]
Delete pu1
Delete[] pu2

Sleep

Output example:
memory allocation for 1048576 bytes from 'New' at address: 32677920
memory allocation for 3145728 bytes from 'New[]' at address: 33775648
memory deallocation from 'Delete' at address 32677920
memory deallocation from 'Delete[]' at address 33775648

Aligned memory allocator:
  • by using the member operators "New Overload" and "Delete Overload", any created User object is aligned to a multiple of "ALIGN" bytes (256 bytes in this example),
  • the real pointer of the allocated memory is saved just above the User pointer, in the padding block.
Const ALIGN = 256

Type UDT
  Dim As Byte a(0 To 10 * 1024 * 1024 - 1) '' 10 megabyte fixed array
  Declare Operator New (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
  Declare Operator Delete (ByVal buffer As Any Ptr)
  Declare Constructor ()
  Declare Destructor ()
End Type

Operator UDT.New (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
  Print "  Overloaded New operator, with parameter size = &h" & Hex(size)
  Dim pOrig As Any Ptr = CAllocate(ALIGN-1 + SizeOf(UDT Ptr) + size)
  Dim pMin As Any Ptr = pOrig + SizeOf(UDT Ptr)
  Dim p As Any Ptr = pMin + ALIGN-1 - (CULng(pMin + ALIGN-1) Mod ALIGN)
  Cast(Any Ptr Ptr, p)[-1] = pOrig
  Operator = p
  Print "  real pointer = &h" & Hex(pOrig), "return pointer = &h" & Hex(p)
End Operator

Operator UDT.Delete (ByVal buffer As Any Ptr)
  Print "  Overloaded Delete operator, with parameter buffer = &h" & Hex(buffer)
  Dim pOrig As Any Ptr = Cast(Any Ptr Ptr, buffer)[-1]
  Deallocate(pOrig)
  Print "  real pointer = &h" & Hex(pOrig)
End Operator

Constructor UDT ()
  Print "  Constructor, @This = &h" & Hex(@This)
End Constructor

Destructor UDT ()
  Print "  Destructor, @This = &h" & Hex(@This)
End Destructor

Print "'Dim As UDT Ptr p = New UDT'"
Dim As UDT Ptr p = New UDT

Print "  p = &h" & Hex(p)

Print "'Delete p'"
Delete p

Sleep

Output example:
'Dim As UDT Ptr p = New UDT'
  Overloaded New operator, with parameter size = &hA00000
  real pointer = &h420020   return pointer = &h420100
  Constructor, @This = &h420100
  p = &h420100
'Delete p'
  Destructor, @This = &h420100
  Overloaded Delete operator, with parameter buffer = &h420100
  real pointer = &h420020

Dynamic allocation manager for UDT, by using the member operators "New[] Overload" and "Delete[] Overload":
  • monitoring of memory allocations/deallocations: addresses, sizes and total memory used,
  • detection of abnormal deallocation requests,
  • detection of a failed allocation (Allocate() returning null pointer),
  • detection of total allocated memory size exceeding a threshold,
  • the last two detection cases induces an automatic memory freeing before forcing the program to end.
The principle is to manage a dynamic list of successful allocations, but not yet freed, containing the allocated addresses with their requested sizes:
Type UDTmanager
  '' user UDT fields:
    Dim As Byte b(1 To 1024*1024)
  '' manager fields:
    Public:
      Declare Operator New[] (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
      Declare Operator Delete[] (ByVal buf As Any Ptr)
      Static As UInteger maxmemory
    Private:
      Static As Any Ptr address()
      Static As UInteger bytes()
      Static upbound As UInteger
      Declare Static Function printLine (ByRef text As String, ByVal index As UInteger, ByVal sign As Integer) As UInteger
      Declare Static Sub endProgram ()
End Type

Dim As UInteger UDTmanager.maxmemory = 3 * 1024 * 1024 * 1024
ReDim UDTmanager.address(0)
ReDim UDTmanager.bytes(0)
Dim UDTmanager.upbound As UInteger = 0

Function UDTmanager.printLine (ByRef text As String, ByVal index As UInteger, ByVal sign As Integer) As UInteger
  Dim As UInteger total = 0
  For I As UInteger = 1 To UDTmanager.upbound
    If I <> index Orelse Sgn(sign) > 0 Then
      total += UDTmanager.bytes(I)
    End If
  Next I
  Print text, "&h" & Hex(UDTmanager.address(index), SizeOf(Any Ptr) * 2),
  If sign <> 0 Then
    Print Using " +####.## MB"; Sgn(sign) * Cast(Integer, UDTmanager.bytes(index) / 1024) / 1024;
  Else
    Print Using "( ####.## MB)"; UDTmanager.bytes(index) / 1024 / 1024;
  End If
  Print,
  Print Using "###.## GB"; total / 1024 / 1024 / 1024
  Return total
End Function

Sub UDTmanager.endProgram ()
  Do While UDTmanager.upbound > 0
    Deallocate UDTmanager.address(UDTmanager.upbound)
    UDTmanager.printLine("memory deallocation forced", UDTmanager.upbound, -1)
    UDTmanager.upbound -= 1
    ReDim Preserve UDTmanager.address(UDTmanager.upbound)
    ReDim Preserve UDTmanager.bytes(UDTmanager.upbound)
  Loop
  Print "end program forced"
  Print
  Sleep
  End
End Sub

Operator UDTmanager.New[] (ByVal size As UInteger) As Any Ptr
  Dim As Any Ptr p = Allocate(size)
  If p > 0 Then
    UDTmanager.upbound += 1
    ReDim Preserve UDTmanager.address(UDTmanager.upbound)
    ReDim Preserve UDTmanager.bytes(UDTmanager.upbound)
    UDTmanager.address(UDTmanager.upbound) = p
    UDTmanager.bytes(UDTmanager.upbound) = size
    If UDTmanager.printLine("memory allocation", UDTmanager.upbound, +1) > UDTmanager.maxmemory Then
      UDTmanager.address(0) = p
      UDTmanager.bytes(0) = size
      Print
      UDTmanager.printLine("memory allocation exceeded", 0, 0)
      UDTmanager.endProgram()
    End If
    Return p
  Else
    UDTmanager.address(0) = p
    UDTmanager.bytes(0) = size
    Print
    UDTmanager.printLine("memory allocation failed", 0, 0)
    UDTmanager.endProgram()
  End If
End Operator

Operator UDTmanager.Delete[] (ByVal buf As Any Ptr)
  Dim As UInteger found = 0
  For I As UInteger = 1 To UDTmanager.upbound
    If UDTmanager.address(I) = buf Then
      Deallocate buf
      UDTmanager.printLine("memory deallocation", I, -1)
      For J As UInteger = I + 1 To UDTmanager.upbound
        UDTmanager.address(J - 1) = UDTmanager.address(J)
        UDTmanager.bytes(J - 1) = UDTmanager.bytes(J)
      Next J
      UDTmanager.upbound -= 1
      ReDim Preserve UDTmanager.address(UDTmanager.upbound)
      ReDim Preserve UDTmanager.bytes(UDTmanager.upbound)
      found = 1
      Exit For
    End If
  Next I
  If found = 0 Then
    UDTmanager.address(0) = buf
    UDTmanager.bytes(0) = 0
    UDTmanager.printLine("deallocation not matching", 0, 0)
  End If
End Operator


Print "Message",, "Address" & Space(SizeOf(Any Ptr)), "Size", "Total"
Print
Randomize
Dim As UDTmanager Ptr pu1 = New UDTmanager[Rnd() * 256 + 1]
Dim As UDTmanager Ptr pu2 = New UDTmanager[Rnd() * 256 + 1]
Dim As UDTmanager Ptr pu3 = Cast(UDTmanager Ptr, 1)
Delete[] pu2
Delete[] pu3
Delete[] pu2
Delete[] pu1
Do
  Dim As UDTmanager Ptr pu = New UDTmanager[Rnd() * 512 + 1]
Loop

Output for fbc 32-bit (maximum dynamic data < 2 GB).
Here, program is stopped because of memory allocation failed:
Message                     Address       Size          Total

memory allocation           &h020E0020       +99.00 MB    0.10 GB
memory allocation           &h083F3020        +3.00 MB    0.10 GB
memory deallocation         &h083F3020        -3.00 MB    0.10 GB
deallocation not matching   &h00000001    (    0.00 MB)   0.10 GB
deallocation not matching   &h083F3020    (    0.00 MB)   0.10 GB
memory deallocation         &h020E0020       -99.00 MB    0.00 GB
memory allocation           &h020ED020      +103.00 MB    0.10 GB
memory allocation           &h087F2020      +106.00 MB    0.20 GB
memory allocation           &h0F20D020      +230.00 MB    0.43 GB
memory allocation           &h1D812020      +137.00 MB    0.56 GB
memory allocation           &h2612C020      +377.00 MB    0.93 GB
memory allocation           &h3DA30020      +275.00 MB    1.20 GB
memory allocation           &h4ED40020      +220.00 MB    1.41 GB
memory allocation           &h5C958020      +229.00 MB    1.64 GB

memory allocation failed    &h00000000    (  142.00 MB)   1.64 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h5C958020      -229.00 MB    1.41 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h4ED40020      -220.00 MB    1.20 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h3DA30020      -275.00 MB    0.93 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h2612C020      -377.00 MB    0.56 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h1D812020      -137.00 MB    0.43 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h0F20D020      -230.00 MB    0.20 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h087F2020      -106.00 MB    0.10 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h020ED020      -103.00 MB    0.00 GB
end program forced

Output for fbc 64-bit (maximum dynamic data < virtual memory).
Here, program is stopped because of total allocated memory size > 3 GB (adjustable threshold):
Message                     Address                     Size          Total

memory allocation           &h0000000001EA5040            +105.00 MB    0.10 GB
memory allocation           &h00000000087BC040             +93.00 MB    0.19 GB
memory deallocation         &h00000000087BC040             -93.00 MB    0.10 GB
deallocation not matching   &h0000000000000001          (    0.00 MB)   0.10 GB
deallocation not matching   &h00000000087BC040          (    0.00 MB)   0.10 GB
memory deallocation         &h0000000001EA5040            -105.00 MB    0.00 GB
memory allocation           &h0000000001EA1040            +155.00 MB    0.15 GB
memory allocation           &h000000000B9BF040            +165.00 MB    0.31 GB
memory allocation           &h0000000015ED8040            +382.00 MB    0.69 GB
memory allocation           &h000000002DCE7040            +458.00 MB    1.13 GB
memory allocation           &h000000004A6FB040            +255.00 MB    1.38 GB
memory allocation           &h000000005A607040             +96.00 MB    1.48 GB
memory allocation           &h000000006061B040            +426.00 MB    1.89 GB
memory allocation           &h000000007FFF9040            +221.00 MB    2.11 GB
memory allocation           &h000000008DD03040            +119.00 MB    2.22 GB
memory allocation           &h0000000095413040            +147.00 MB    2.37 GB
memory allocation           &h000000009E727040            +217.00 MB    2.58 GB
memory allocation           &h00000000AC03C040            +334.00 MB    2.91 GB
memory allocation           &h00000000C0E4B040            +280.00 MB    3.18 GB

memory allocation exceeded  &h00000000C0E4B040          (  280.00 MB)   3.18 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h00000000C0E4B040            -280.00 MB    2.91 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h00000000AC03C040            -334.00 MB    2.58 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000009E727040            -217.00 MB    2.37 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h0000000095413040            -147.00 MB    2.22 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000008DD03040            -119.00 MB    2.11 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000007FFF9040            -221.00 MB    1.89 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000006061B040            -426.00 MB    1.48 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000005A607040             -96.00 MB    1.38 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000004A6FB040            -255.00 MB    1.13 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000002DCE7040            -458.00 MB    0.69 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h0000000015ED8040            -382.00 MB    0.31 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h000000000B9BF040            -165.00 MB    0.15 GB
memory deallocation forced  &h0000000001EA1040            -155.00 MB    0.00 GB
end program forced

Dialect Differences:
Differences from QB:
See also:
Back to Memory Operators
Back to Operators
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