Wiki source for KeyPgExtends


Show raw source

{{fbdoc item="title" value="EXTENDS"}}----
Specifies a base type from which to derive a new type

{{fbdoc item="syntax"}}##
[[KeyPgType|Type]]|[[KeyPgUnion|Union]] //typename// **Extends** //base_typename//
...
End [[KeyPgType|Type]]|[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]
##
{{fbdoc item="desc"}}
##**Extends**## declares ##//typename//## to be derived from ##//base_typename//##. The derived user-defined type, ##//typename//##, inherits fields and methods of the ##//base_typename//## base type. ##//typename//## objects may be used in place of ##//base_typename//## objects. Fields and methods inherited from ##//base_typename//## will be implicitly accessible like members of ##//typename//##.
However, a member will shadow an inherited member if they have the same identifier. The ##[[KeyPgBase|Base (member access)]]## keyword can be used to explicitly access members of the base type shadowed by local members.

User-defined types that extend another type will include the base type structure at their beginning, and their size as reported by ##[[KeyPgSizeof|sizeof()]]## is the sum of their base type's size plus the size needed for any regular data fields (non-static data fields). Since the inherited members make sure that the structure is not empty, a derived type is not required to have regular data fields of its own.

In ##//typename//## (the derived user-defined type), the fields can share the same memory space than the ##//base_typename//## only if ##//typename//## is a ##[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]##. Here it does not matter whether ##//base_typename//## is a ##[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]## or not.
If only ##//base_typename//## is a ##[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]##, then it will not be affected by fields from ##//typename//## (the derived user-defined type).
As a ##[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]## is not allowed to have complex fields (i.e. user-defined types with constructor/destructor, or dynamic strings), a derived ##[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]## cannot be allowed to have (contain) a complex ##//base_typename//##.

The ##[[KeyPgBaseInit|Base (initializer)]]## keyword can be used at the top of constructor of derived user-defined type. It allows to specify an initializer or constructor call for the base type.

Extending the built-in ##[[KeyPgObject|Object]]## type allows a user-defined type to be used with ##[[KeyPgOpIs|Operator Is]]## to perform run-time type checks, to support ##[[KeyPgVirtual|Virtual]]## and ##[[KeyPgAbstract|Abstract]]## methods, and to use the ##[[KeyPgOverride|Override]]## method attribute.

**Note:** UDT pointer can only be cast to pointer types of "widened compatibility" (up or even down in the inheritance hierarchy), or to ##[[KeyPgAny|Any]] [[KeyPgPtr|Ptr]]##. Otherwise, cast to ##[[KeyPgAny|Any]] [[KeyPgPtr|Ptr]]## first (or to ##[[KeyPgObject|Object]] [[KeyPgPtr|Ptr]]## first if both types are directly or indirectly derived from ##[[KeyPgObject|Object]]##).

{{fbdoc item="ex"}}
{{fbdoc item="filename" value="examples/manual/udt/extends1.bas"}}%%(freebasic)
Type SchoolMember 'Represents any school member'
Declare Constructor ()
Declare Sub Init (Byref _name As String, Byval _age As Integer)
As String name
As Integer age
End Type

Constructor SchoolMember ()
Print "Initialized SchoolMember"
End Constructor

Sub SchoolMember.Init (Byref _name As String, Byval _age As Integer)
This.name = _name
This.age = _age
Print "Name: "; This.name; " Age:"; This.age
End Sub


Type Teacher Extends SchoolMember 'Represents a teacher derived from SchoolMember'
Declare Constructor (Byref _name As String, Byval _age As Integer, Byval _salary As Integer)
As Integer salary
Declare Sub Tell ()
End Type

Constructor Teacher (Byref _name As String, Byval _age As Integer, Byval _salary As Integer)
Print "Initialized Teacher"
This.Init(_name, _age) 'implicit access to base member procedure'
This.salary = _salary
End Constructor

Sub Teacher.Tell ()
Print "Salary:"; This.salary
End Sub


Type Student Extends SchoolMember 'Represents a student derived from SchoolMember'
Declare Constructor (Byref _name As String, Byval _age As Integer, Byval _marks As Integer)
As Integer marks
Declare Sub Tell ()
End Type

Constructor Student (Byref _name As String, Byval _age As Integer, Byval _marks As Integer)
Print "Initialized Student"
This.Init(_name, _age) 'implicit access to base member procedure'
This.marks = _marks
End Constructor

Sub Student.Tell ()
Print "Marks:"; This.marks
End Sub


Dim As Teacher t = Teacher("Mrs. Shrividya", 40, 30000)
t.Tell()
Print
Dim As Student s = Student("Swaroop", 22, 75)
s.Tell()
%%
{{fbdoc item="filename" value="examples/manual/udt/extends2.bas"}}%%(freebasic)
' Example using all eight keywords of inheritance:
' 'Extends', 'Base.', 'Base()', 'Object', 'Is' operator, 'Virtual', 'Abstract', 'Override'

Type root Extends Object ' 'Extends' to activate RTTI by inheritance of predefined Object type
Declare Function ObjectHierarchy () As String
Declare Abstract Function ObjectRealType () As String ' 'Abstract' declares function without local body
' which must be overriden
Dim name As String
Declare Virtual Destructor () ' 'Virtual' declares destructor with body ('Abstract' forbidden)
Protected:
Declare Constructor () ' to avoid user construction from root
Declare Constructor (Byref rhs As root) '' to avoid user copy-construction from root
End Type ' derived type may be member data empty

Constructor root ()
End Constructor

Function root.ObjectHierarchy () As String
Return "Object(forRTTI) <- root"
End Function

Virtual Destructor root ()
Print "root destructor"
End Destructor


Type animal Extends root ' 'Extends' to inherit of root
Declare Constructor (Byref _name As String = "")
Declare Function ObjectHierarchy () As String
Declare Virtual Function ObjectRealType () As String Override ' 'Virtual' declares function with local
' body which can be overriden
' 'Override' to check if the function is
' well an override
Declare virtual Destructor () Override ' 'Virtual' declares destructor with local body
' 'Override' to check if the destructor is well an override
End Type

Constructor animal (Byref _name As String = "")
This.name = _name
End Constructor

Function animal.ObjectHierarchy () As String
Return Base.ObjectHierarchy & " <- animal" ' 'Base.' allows to access to parent member function
End Function

Virtual Function animal.ObjectRealType () As String
Return "animal"
End Function

Virtual Destructor animal ()
Print " animal destructor: " & This.name
End Destructor


Type dog Extends animal ' 'Extends' to inherit of animal
Declare Constructor (Byref _name As String = "")
Declare Function ObjectHierarchy () As String
Declare Function ObjectRealType () As String Override ' 'Override' to check if the function is well an
' override
Declare Destructor () Override ' 'Override' to check if the destructor is well an override
End Type ' derived type may be member data empty

Constructor dog (Byref _name As String = "")
Base(_name) ' 'Base()' allows to call parent constructor
End Constructor

Function dog.ObjectHierarchy () As String
Return Base.ObjectHierarchy & " <- dog" ' 'Base.' allows to access to parent member function
End Function

Function dog.ObjectRealType () As String
Return "dog"
End Function

Destructor dog ()
Print " dog destructor: " & This.name
End Destructor


Type cat Extends animal ' 'Extends' to inherit of animal
Declare Constructor (Byref _name As String = "")
Declare Function ObjectHierarchy () As String
Declare Function ObjectRealType () As String Override ' 'Override' to check if the function is well an
' override
Declare Destructor () Override ' 'Override' to check if the destructor is well an override
End Type ' derived type may be member data empty

Constructor cat (Byref _name As String = "")
Base(_name) ' 'Base()' allows to call parent constructor
End Constructor

Function cat.ObjectHierarchy () As String
Return Base.ObjectHierarchy & " <- cat" ' 'Base.' allows to access to parent member function
End Function

Function cat.ObjectRealType () As String
Return "cat"
End Function

Destructor cat ()
Print " cat destructor: " & This.name
End Destructor


Sub PrintInfo (Byval p As root Ptr) ' must be put after definition of animal type, dog type and cat type
Print " " & p->name, " " & p->ObjectRealType, " ";
If *p Is dog Then ' 'Is' allows to check compatibility with type symbol
Print Cast(dog Ptr, p)->ObjectHierarchy
Elseif *p Is cat Then ' 'Is' allows to check compatibility with type symbol
Print Cast(cat Ptr, p)->ObjectHierarchy
Elseif *p Is animal Then ' 'Is' allows to check compatibility with type symbol
Print Cast(animal Ptr, p)->ObjectHierarchy
End If
End Sub


Print "Name:", "Object (real): Hierarchy:"
Dim a As root Ptr = New animal("Mouse")
PrintInfo(a)
Dim d As root Ptr = New dog("Buddy")
PrintInfo(d)
Dim c As root Ptr = New cat("Tiger")
Printinfo(c)
Print
Delete a
Delete d
Delete c
%%
{{fbdoc item="lang"}}
- Not available in the //[[CompilerOptlang|-lang qb]]// dialect unless referenced with the alias ##**""__Extends""**##.

{{fbdoc item="diff"}}
- New to ""FreeBASIC""

{{fbdoc item="see"}}
- ##[[KeyPgType|Type]]##
- ##[[KeyPgUnion|Union]]##
- ##[[KeyPgBaseInit|Base (initializer)]]##
- ##[[KeyPgBase|Base (member access)]]##
- ##[[KeyPgObject|Object]]##
- ##[[KeyPgOpIs|Operator Is]]##
- ##[[KeyPgVirtual|Virtual]]##
- ##[[KeyPgAbstract|Abstract]]##
- ##[[KeyPgOverride|Override]]##

{{fbdoc item="back" value="CatPgUserDefTypes|User Defined Types"}}
Valid XHTML :: Valid CSS: :: Powered by WikkaWiki



sf.net phatcode