Gold has atomic number 79. That means it's nucleus has 79 protons, so it will take 79 electrons to neutralise it.Albert wrote:If a gold atom has 79 electrons , can it be charged more than 79 electron volts positive?
The chemistry of elements is decided by the number of protons.
It so happens that with gold, chemistry can borrow up to 5 of the 79 electrons, or chemistry can lend just one more electron to a gold atom. Beyond that it takes too much energy, so the chemical bonds would not make stable compounds.
An “electron volt”, eV, is the energy needed to lift a charge of one electron up a 1 volt step.
But the quantised steps in energy of an atom's orbitals are not steps of one volt. Each possible quantum energy step is different and characteristic of the element and orbital. The energy levels for gold measured relative to the neutral “ground state” are; [+1] = 9.22V, [+2] = 20.5V and [+3] = 30V.
That is not the way it works. If it takes one woman, 9 months to produce a baby, how long would it take 9 women?Albert wrote:So if you wanted to charge it to 79 million volts positive , would you need 1,000,000 atoms as the mass?
An ingot of gold is made of neutral atoms that are very happy to share electrons with each other. That makes gold metal highly conductive and highly reflective.
If you charge that ingot to V=+79MV relative to ground, the charge, Q, or number of electrons, that need to be transferred from the ingot to ground will be determined by the capacitance, C, between the gold metal electrode and the ground. Q = C * V.
If you accelerate gold atoms across a gap of 79MV they will be so hot that they will be stripped of most of their electrons. They will form a plasma hotter than the solar corona.
But they will still be gold atoms.